Tag Archives: Laboratory Notebook

How Adults Can Sabotage a Child’s Academic Success in Science and Mathematics

They were the beacon of hope and a light into the future almost a half-century ago. Two of the most beloved wonders of the world, then—science and mathematics—have become two of the most controversial subjects in today’s public and private education system. Science is suffering from variable results based off shaky theories and continual research into itself, causing its constants to change—changes that most people cannot or will not understand or accept.

Child's Academic Success in Mathematics

Meanwhile, mathematics suffers from an overall deep dislike of the subject by many people and by the birth of technology, which grants quick access to complex equations by a sequence of keystrokes—much unlike the mid-1900s, and before, when problem-solving was drawn out in laboratory notebooks or on classroom chalkboards.

Conversations have turned away from bouncing ideas and thoughts from one person to the next. Now, we often repeat aloud the words and numbers displayed on screens from waves of data bounced between the electronic devices. With this disconnect applied to the fundamentals of math, it is quite easy to forgo understanding the entire equation, ending up just spitting out the answer.

So, how can people really learn about and like math when they don’t want or need to? It doesn’t help that parents reinforce this behavior when they pull out their phones to calculate a tip or convert fractions into decimals. Why would a student choose to pick up a pencil and a lab notebook if the mentality toward math is to use a smartphone to come up with an answer?

As it turns out, all of these anxieties and fears of science and mathematics affect the ability of children in the classroom. Some believe it has to do with the fact that “parents’ and teachers’ own math anxieties and their beliefs about whether math ability is a stable trait may prove to be significant influences on children’s math attitudes.”1

Child's Academic Success in Science

Another example of detrimental effects these attitudes toward math have on children are the deep-seeded gender stereotypes about girls’ inabilities to excel in mathematics. This, alone, could prevent a student from fulfilling her potential simply because of a culture perpetuates this belief about both math and science.

Science is constantly under the scrutiny of religious leaders. It is hard to imagine that the creationism and evolution-based ideologies could be any further apart. Most creationist leaders toss aside scientific research that contradicts creationism, no matter how solid or well-researched it may be.

In some states, where religion plays a huge part of daily life, this ideology can affect the classroom significantly. Students are not taught that science is a living, breathing subject. Instead, many are taught that science had its shot and has, in some ways, failed to prove itself.

It is imperative that adults stress the importance of science and math, and the advantages they provide us in improving our culture and careers, as well as our understanding of the vast universe we call home. With these key elements in mind, students can prepare themselves for a bright and successful future ahead.

Source

1. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11199-011-9996-2

Tips for Reading a Scientific Paper

For many students of science, learning how to read scientific papers can pose a challenge in the beginning. With the use of referencing scientific papers in the media, classroom, and on websites, it is vital to be able to read and correctly interpret scientific papers.

Lab notebook

Scientific papers are almost always prefaced with an abstract—a summary of the hypothesis, research, and results. However, some abstracts can be fairly short, may contain a significant amount of scientific jargon, or do not convey the in-depth research done by the paper’s authors.  Some websites also require you to have an account to be able to read the paper’s full text. You may feel overwhelmed, at first, so here are a few tips to help you read and understand a paper from beginning to end.

  1. Give it a quick first read. Using a lab notebook, write down the name of the paper. Be sure to take notes while reading. Use the header words of each different section—for example, Introduction, Conclusion, etc.—so you are able to keep your notes organized.  Quickly skim the paper and write down main themes, theories, research data, and other terms or phrases that stand out.
  2. Create a list of phrases or terms that confuse you. In your laboratory notebook, be sure to create a way to identify unfamiliar and/or confusing terms or phrases. Different sciences may use familiar terms as a completely different meaning. Some sciences use the context of words to explain research that may not make sense in layman’s terms.
  3. Research words you do not understand. Use a scientific dictionary to research unfamiliar terms or phrases. Once you have gathered all of the information in context of the paper, re-read it again carefully. Be sure to compare your new understanding of the paper to your notes. Double check that the notes you have written down in your lab notebook are correctly aligned with the paper’s data. Key elements to look out for are the publishing date, hypothesis, sample size, collection methods, and conclusion(s).
  4. Pay attention to figure details. Many papers include graphs, infographics, and/or tables. It is key to take notes on the figures in the order of which they are mentioned in the paper. It is very important to understand the effects of scaling within the graph(s) to be able to correctly interpret the data. Record the information you learned in your laboratory notebook.
  5. Interpret the data in student scientific notebooks. Use your laboratory research notebook to answer the questions. You may have to go back and read sections several times while comparing your notes to the paper in order to get a better understanding of the subject. Be sure to do independent research on the same or similar studies.
  6. Ask yourself the following questions:

-What is the hypothesis?
-What are the data collection methods?
-What does the data say about the hypothesis?
-What does the conclusion say about the hypothesis?

Scientific notebooks

 

The Importance of Good Laboratory Notebook Practices

Establishing good laboratory notebook practices begins in high school. It is important for science and engineering instructors to require that their students have a proper notebook to record their work in for the class. Some students might question why they need to write in their notebooks and why they cannot just use a laptop or tablet instead. Instructors should be prepared to answer these types of questions by educating their students with the following information.

Laboratory Notebook

  • Recording theories, experiments, and their outcomes in notebooks makes it easy to review later and ensures the student can build upon prior experiences to improve upon and potentially reach the desired outcome. Plus, it is much easier to make notations, sketch drawings, and other such things quickly and easily in paper notebooks.
  • Notebooks allow students to record every vital detail about coursework and related projects. In some courses, students are required to write a final paper at the end of the course that covers the projects they completed throughout the class. Having access to a notebook where everything was recorded makes it easier for students to compose their final papers.
  • Numerous university and college courses will require students to use the appropriate notebooks. Learning how to properly use notebooks while still in high school will prepare students now, so, when they start college, they will already be familiar with using these types of notebooks with their classes.
  • Handwritten notebooks in ink establish a record of the work completed and time period. This can be important later in life should your students pursue a career in science, engineering, medicine, and other such fields. Often, filing for a trademark, patent, or copyright requires being able to prove various details and/or being able to defend oneself against legal actions, should another obtain one of these protected items for a similar item.

Recording Information in the Notebooks

Part of establishing good notebook practices is learning how to record information. First, everything from text entries to drawings and sketches should be written in ink, never pencil. Next, rather than scratching out mistakes and errors, or attempting to cover them up with correction fluid, it is better to leave them alone and simply draw a single line through the entry and record an explanation why it was crossed out.

It is also recommended to record any materials you used and their amounts in your notebook. This way, if you need to repeat an experiment or alter it later, you will have a record of what you already used and how much of it. Further, if you are working in a team, lab notebooks can help show each person’s contributions. For any entries you make, remember to sign your name and date under them to show your contributions to the project.

Laboratory Notebook

There are many different styles of notebooks out there to choose from, and the best ones to use are ones with permanently bound pages available from Scientific Notebook Company. Please feel free to contact us at 800.537.3028 for assistance in selecting the best notebooks for your students, research projects, or coursework.

Recently Discovered: Earth’s Oldest Ocean Crust Formed 340 Million Years Ago

Dr. Roi Granot, a scientific researcher from BGU (Ben Gurion University of the Negev) in Israel recently discovered the earth’s oldest ocean crust under the Mediterranean Sea. It is estimated the crust is 340 million years old and is a significant discover.

Ocean crust is much thinner than continental crust. It is formed when volcanic tubes under the ocean erupt, spewing forth magma from the mantle. When it hits the cooler ocean waters, it starts to harden. During this process the minerals within the magma become magnetized to the earth’s magnetic poles.

As such, they are essentially bar coded time stamps as to when the crust formed, since scientists can determine the direction the magnetic materials were aligned to, and match that to the earth’s magnetic poles for a particular time period.

Oldest Ocean Crust

Ocean crusts have been studied in great detail throughout the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. One important difference between ocean and continental crusts is that ocean crusts are recycled back into the earth along subduction zones. Since the earth recycles ocean crusts on a continuous basis, the oldest ones are roughly believed to be about 200 million years old or less, depending on the area in the world. It was previous believed the crusts in both oceans were among the oldest on the earth.

What makes Dr. Granot’s research interesting and exciting is that, previously, not much research was conducted in the Mediterranean due to a rather thick layer of sedimentary coverage over the ocean crust in this region. However, thanks to advances in technology and magnetic imaging, Dr. Granot was able to overcome this previous obstacle.

As a result, he was able to capture images of the magnetic striping found within the crust at the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea. He and his team of researchers covered some 7,000 kilometers of sea floor in the Herodotus Basin region from 2012 to 2014. To capture the alignment of the magnetic stripes within the crust, they used a device called a magnetometer that they towed behind their boat.

340 million-year-old ocean crust

By using the magnetic striping, along with various patterns within the stripes, Dr. Granot was able to date the sea floor to roughly 340 million years ago. He further hypothesizes that the basin is a remaining remnant from the Tethys Ocean, which existed long before today’s oceans. If his hypothesis is correct, it would also be a great scientific discovery, as it would mean that the world’s oceans formed earlier than currently believed.

Additional research is still needed to further substantiate Dr. Granot’s findings. You can be sure that Dr. Granot and his team of researchers recorded their findings in scientific notebooks for future study and research. These official laboratory notebooks are like the ones you can find at Scientific Notebook Company. Contact us today for official research, laboratory, student, and engineering notebooks for your scientific and engineering projects by calling 800.537.3028.

Source

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/08/160815114933.htm

Scientists Discover a New Kind of Fire Called “Blue Whirl”

The University of Maryland’s’ scientists have discovered a new type of fire, which they have aptly named “Blue Whirl.” This new fire is small, whirling, transparent, and blue. It opens insights into new ways to use fire for cleaner burning, as well as opens up a wide range of potential applications, like cleaning up oil spills.

The new fire was discovered using the basic principles of how fire behaves in nature. In cases where hot air is rising from the ground quickly, a whirling and spinning circulation sometimes forms, much like a tornado. However, the air is not the only thing spinning, and the fire also gets pulled into the whirling mass. Some people might know fire whirls as fire devils or fire tornados.

yellow fire whirls

Fire whirls tend to burn much faster and hotter than normal fires. In nature, fire whirls can be dangerous when they occur during wildfires. Fire whirls have also been known to form during chemical fires, too. It is this concept of the fire tornado that scientists examined in greater detail. What if the power of the fire tornado could be harnessed, much like electricity was?

Yellow and orange fire whirls are signs there is insufficient oxygen levels to fully burn the fuel. As a result, the combustion process is incomplete and allows soot, particles, and pollution to be released into the air. By introducing sufficient levels of oxygen, scientists have been able to evolve fires from the traditional orange and yellow fire whirls into blue whirls.

The blue flame signifies the right balance between oxygen and fuel. As a result, the fuel burns more efficiently with little to no pollutants, particles, or soot being released into the air. The blue whirl has only been created in the laboratory, as this is the first time fire whirls were studied for potential applications.

Blue Fire Whirl

During their initial experiments, scientists accidently discovered blue whirls. Scientists were observing how fire whirls would behave over water when they noticed blue whirls forming. These blue fire tornadoes burned the fuel steadily and efficiently, leaving very few byproducts.

One practical application for blue whirls would be in the cleanup of oil and petroleum spills in the ocean or other bodies of water. For larger spills, they are enclosed using various methods and then set on fire. The fire releases smoke, pollutants, and other toxins into the air. With blue whirls, the process would be made cleaner and more efficient.

Since blue fire burns optimally, there would be fewer emissions released into the air; not to mention, the spill could be cleaned up faster. Scientists plan to continue to explore and discover other applications for blue whirls.

Whether you are studying fire whirls or trying to discover the cure for cancer, you need to record your findings and notes in official laboratory and research notebooks available from Scientific Notebook Company. Call us at 800.537.3028 today for more information!

The Science Behind Shooting Stars

Shooting stars light up the night sky and make for a wonderful show as they streak across the horizon. However, these are not really stars falling out of the sky, as the name would imply. Rather, they are particles of dust and meteors that have broken away from larger asteroids and comets.

They range in size from small particles similar to sand, to chunks of minerals as big as boulders. It is interesting to note, if the object makes it to Earth, it is scientifically classified as a meteorite, and if it is smaller than a particle of sand it is classified as space dust.

Shooting Stars

As the meteors enter earth’s atmosphere, they are moving at very high speeds, where they encounter resistance from air particles. As they “rub” against the air particles, it creates friction. The friction causes heat energy to be created. It is this heat energy that lights up the night sky as the meteor is essentially burned up and dissolved. Depending on the size of the meteor, the light effects seen from the ground can be quick and fast to slightly longer.

In very rare cases, part of the meteor will make its way through the atmosphere and reach the earth’s surface. When an impact does occur, the object is called a meteorite. Due to the high speeds, impacts from meteorites can create craters into the earth up to 20 times the actual size of the meteorite.

Meteorite crater impacts are quite noticeable on the moon, and there have been several throughout the world. One of the more famous craters, Meteor Crater, is located in the northern Arizona dessert, about 37 miles east of Flagstaff, AZ. Of interest is scientists and others avidly agree, the crater was misnamed and should have been called Meteorite Crater.

Scientific Notebook

There have also been cases where meteors have exploded while still in the air, before actually hitting the ground. One such case occurred in June 30, 1908 over Siberia, Russia and is called the Tunguska Event. Witnesses at that time reported seeing a fireball streaking through the sky that exploded. The explosion sent out shockwaves, knocking over trees and damaging buildings in nearby villages. After the explosion, dust particles were released into the atmosphere, where they continued to light the night sky over the next several evenings.

A more recent incident, similar to the Tunguska Event, occurred over Chelyabinsk, Russia on February 15, 2013, where a meteor also exploded prior to impacting the earth. Scientists estimated the size of the meteor was around 17 meters wide and the explosion took place approximately between 12 to 15 miles above the ground. The explosion did release shockwaves, with energy levels up to 40 times more powerful than the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima during WWII, and it injured over 1,000 people and damaged numerous buildings.

This recent event has brought to light the potential damage meteors could pose, and increased awareness within the scientific and astronomy communities. However, the likelihood of devastating impacts or explosions are still rare occurrences. You can keep a record of meteor shower events throughout the years, by recording the dates and times of events in scientific notebooks available from Scientific Notebook Company. Contact us at 800.537.3028 to place your order today!

Source:

http://www.space.com/15353-meteor-showers-facts-shooting-stars-skywatching-sdcmp.html

Dogs Man’s Best Friend Twice Over

Dogs have long been one of the most helpful domesticated animals, providing companionship and service for thousands of years. Scientists have long debated whether dogs were domesticated in Europe or Asia. New findings suggest about the animals that the answer is both.

Dogs-Man’s-Best-Friend

Recent research indicates that dogs were domesticated independently by residents of Europe and Asia thousands of years ago. Findings documented in research journals and other publications by scientists who analyzed the genetics of hundreds of dogs suggest that canines were domesticated twice, once in Asia and once in the vicinity of Europe. The line of dogs domesticated in Europe appears to have died out. Researchers from the University of Oxford contributed to the project.

The Newgrange Dog

A key specimen helped scientists reach this conclusion: the inner ear bone of a dog found on the east coast of Ireland. The bone is 5,000 years old and was found at Newgrange, a large earthen mound. Researchers sequenced the nuclear genome of the specimen, and then compared it to the genes of more than 600 dogs from around the globe. The sequencing revealed big differences between the specimen and other dogs.

Some key findings concerning the Newgrange dog include:

  • The dog was male.
  • It was not able to process starch as well as modern dogs, but was more adept at processing it than wolves.
  • The dog did not possess genetic variants associated with the coat length or coat color of modern dogs.
  • The dog exhibited traits suggesting an ancestry not found in modern dogs.

Researchers now believe that modern dogs descend from canines domesticated in Asia more than 10,000 years ago. The European strain of domesticated dogs are believed to have hit a genetic bottleneck a few thousand years ago and died out. Researchers believe that the Asian strain of domesticated dogs supplanted the European variety as these dogs came west along with humans migrating to the area. Dogs originally branched off from wolves more than 20,000 years ago.

Documenting Scientific Work

While technology has given scientists an ever expanding selection of tools to use in researching and recording their findings, the lab notebook remains a constant in the profession. Professional lab notebooks provide researchers with a quick and easy way to jot down findings and document their progress as they work.

The-Newgrange-Dog

Laboratory notebooks remain extremely important in patent rights and intellectual property cases, as they often provide critical evidence about the development of new ideas. Often lab notes that are decades old prove the deciding factor in these lawsuits, thanks to the meticulous documentation performed by researchers.

While dog’s are man’s best friend, the trusty and reliable lab notebook remains the constant companion of dedicated scientists and researchers around the world.

SNCO is a trusted provider of laboratory notebooks, engineering notebooks, and other products aimed at helping scientists document their work so tomorrow’s researchers can broaden the expanse of human knowledge even more.  To learn more about SNCO scientific notebooks, call 1-(800)-537-3028.

The Science of Weight Loss

Over the years there have been numerous diets and schools of thought when it comes to weight loss. You could compare the notes in each bound notebook from one generation to the next and see the trends in reducing certain foods, exercising, and so forth. Now, these “trends” have undergone a bit of research so that significant unexpected changes have been added to the weight loss world.

Science-of-Weight-Loss

Obesity Counseling

Obesity was once considered to be based on laziness and unhealthy habits. Today, it has been found that changes in diet and exercise are not enough. Obesity is a disease and improves significantly with face to face obesity counseling.

Intense Beats Endurance

It turns out that you don’t have to spend all day at the gym to increase your weight loss. Intense body weight training for just a few minutes a day are just as effective as being at the gym slowly working out all day.

Damaged Neurons Lead to Obesity

When lots of unhealthy food is consumed, such as foods high in fats and sugars, the brain does not respond any better than the rest of the body. Eating these foods in large amounts causes inflammatory cells to seep into the hypothalamus. When this happens, neurons are damaged, and the hormones that regulate hunger cannot function properly. So, yes, maybe it is all in your head.

Add Foods to Your Diet

All this time, people have been talking about what you need to remove from your diet. In some cases, they are correct when they say you should eat less of this and that when it comes to things like processed foods, fats, and sugars. Yet, you can boost your weight loss by adding fiber to your diet. One school of thought suggests that fiber makes you feel fuller faster, so you don’t eat as much in the end.

Foods-to-Your-Diet

Eat When Hungry

Three squares a day used to be the rule of thumb, but it is always a bad idea to eat when you aren’t really hungry. Instead of planning for three meals, just eat when you are hungry and only eat until you are full. In fact, eating multiple times during the day and only consuming small amounts of food when you do so keeps your metabolism active all day long.

Change White-Yellow to Brown

White-yellow fat doesn’t do much for the body but surround the organs. It can be changed to brown fat, a fat that has a positive impact on our metabolism. Unlike white-yellow fat, it also burns calories in an effort to keep the body warm.

Keep it simple in your research notebook. Eat more fiber and eat only when you are hungry. Have a more intense but shorter workout, and step out into the cold weather every now and then. If you are obese, don’t stop your treatment method at adding diet and exercise. Instead, get some real face to face counseling to get to any underlying factors and change your coping skills for a more positive effect.

The Science Behind Making the Best Chocolate Chip Cookies Ever

Have you ever felt your chocolate chip cookies were lacking in flavor, texture, or some other aspect you desperately sought? Well, the truth behind making chocolate chip cookies and achieving the desired results has to do with ingredients you use, as well as science. Think of the cookie recipe as your scientific experiment and, by making slight modifications to the basic chocolate chip cookie recipe, you can modify the end results.

From ooey-gooey cookies to cookies that are chewy, and everything in between, recipe modification is becoming rather popular with culinary experts. They are relying upon science and how various ingredients interact with one another to create the perfect cookie. Here are some tips and tricks you can try at home, and remember to record your perfect cookie recipe results in a scientific notebook.

Scientific Notebook

  • Freeze the cookie dough for thirty to sixty minutes before baking to get thicker, but less crispy cookies.

  • Use a quarter of a teaspoon of both baking soda and baking powder for cookies with a soft center and crispy outsides.

  • For chewy cookies, use bread flour in place of all-purpose flour.

  • Add butterscotch flavor to cookies by using three-quarters of a cup packed light brown sugar in place of the same amount of granulated sugar and light brown sugar combined.

  • For denser cookies with a rich, golden-brown look, melt the butter before adding it in with the sugar and eggs.

  • To achieve a store-bought finish, substitute shortening in place of half of the butter needed in the recipe.

  • If you like more cakey cookies, use all baking soda in the recipe and add a little bit more for puffier cookies.

  • For browner cookies, set the oven temperatures to 360 degrees instead of 350 degrees Fahrenheit, because the sugar in the cookies will caramelize.

  • Mix together one ounce of granulated sugar and one ounce of corn syrup, and add this to the recipe for more uniform cookies.

  • For a more flavorful cookie, chill the cookie dough for a minimum of twenty-four hours before baking.

One thing to remember about butter is that it changes the appearance and size of the cookies, based on how it is incorporated into the recipe. Cold butter does not spread as much at room temperature or as melted better, so the cookies will appear smaller. Modifying how eggs are used in the cookie recipe will also affect the end results. For instance, you can use all egg whites, all egg yolks and no whites, or some combination thereof. Extra egg yolks result in a fudgier cookie, while extra egg whites result in a taller cookie.

Remember to record your results and have fun while you are experimenting and working toward creating your favorite types of chocolate chip cookies. You can obtain scientific and laboratory notebooks from your cookie experiments by contacting Scientific Notebook Company today at 800-537-3028.Research Notebook

 

Sources:

http://sweets.seriouseats.com/2013/12/the-food-lab-the-best-chocolate-chip-cookies.html?ref=search

http://www.sunnyskyz.com/blog/875/The-Science-Behind-Baking-The-Most-Delicious-Cookie-Ever

 

Scientists Accidently Discover Cells That Make Leukemia Cells Non-Cancerous

Scientific researchers from TSRI (The Scripps Research Institute) were attempting to engineer cells for people suffering from immune cell deficiencies and develop a new antibody therapy. Immune cell deficiencies happen when the body does not product the sufficient number of white blood cells—the cells vital for fighting infections. The scientists initially were looking for ways to create antibodies that, when applied to immature cells found in bone marrow, would transform the cells into mature cells and therefore increase the number of mature white blood cells in immune cell deficient patients.

Their work over the past few years has been successful in achieving this objective. However, what they were not expecting to discover was that a small number of the antibody induced cells transformed the immature cells into a new cell type, similar to cells normally found within the body’s nervous system. The TSRI team of scientists were wondering what applications these new cells could potentially be used for, and they decided to experiment with AML (Acute Myeloid Leukemia) cells.

Research Notebookz

AML is an aggressive form of leukemia which attacks and destroys the body’s myeloid cells. Myeloid cells are responsible for helping fight the spread of tissue damage, parasites, and bacterial infections. People who suffer from AML produce an excessive amount of white blood cells, and this causes problems with their body producing other types of blood cells, including myeloid cells.

The scientists took blood samples from patients who had high levels of AML cells within their blood. Next, they introduced the newly created antibody cells into the blood sample. What they discovered was astonishing: The new cells attacked and transformed the AML cells into dendritic cells, and in the process, removed the threat of leukemia. Dendritic cells are a vital type of cell that helps support the body’s immune system.

The scientists were excited by this new discovery and decided to see what would happen if they exposed the blood samples for an even longer period of time to the new antibody cells. Eventually, the new antibody cells caused the dendritic cells to mature into cells resembling those that the body naturally produces to eliminate viruses and bacterial infections from the body, as well as to attack and attempt to kill cancerous cells.

From their efforts and extensive research, the new cells were aptly named NK (natural killer) cells. The new NK cells eradicated roughly 15% of the leukemia cells within a 24 hour period, by extending the cell’s tendrils and attaching themselves directly to the cancerous leukemia cells. In addition, scientists noted the NK cells only targeted AML cells, a condition scientists refer to as fratricide. In other words, since the NK cells were created from AML cells, they were only attracted to AML cells.

Scientific researchers are hopeful to start experiments with human patients suffering from AML. Using the documentation recorded in their research notebooks, they are starting experimentation with other types of cancer cells to determine whether this discovery could be applied to other forms of cancer and be a viable form of treatment to fully cure patients of cancer.

To document all of your laboratory, science, and research findings, contact Scientific Notebook Company today at 800-537-3028 for high quality notebooks.

Research Notebook